30 only seven individuals identified themselves as merchants. Fire was a constant threat, and in the 1860s one misfortune after another struck. The storms of 1861-62 brought high tides and flooding. In May 1862 a severe earthquake was followed by a smallpox epi- demic. Several years of drought devastated the ranchos and the cattle industry in Southern California. In 1867 San Franciscan Alonzo Horton arrived in San Diego to begin build- ing nearby New Town. In 1868 the San Diego Union began publication in what is now Old Town. The 1869 discovery of gold in Julian created a need for supplies, services and hous- ing—a boon to San Diego’s economy. From 1868 to 1874, Albert Seeley operated a stage- coach line between San Diego and Los Angeles. However, it was only a matter of time before New Town began to eclipse the old settlement. Government offices moved to the new commu- nity, taking along much of Old Town’s econom- ic base. Hope for Old Town’s revitalization died in the spring of 1872, when fire destroyed seven buildings, including the old courthouse. In 1907 sugar magnate John D. Spreckels pur- chased the remains of Casa de Estudillo and began the first efforts to revive Old Town. Public fascination with Helen Hunt Jackson’s romantic novel, Ramona, led to restoration of the building advertised as “Ramona’s Marriage Place.” In 1908 more restoration began. These buildings helped renew interest in San Diego’s Spanish and Mexican roots. Auto touring brought more visitors, and in the 1930s several buildings were built to enhance its appearance as a “Spanish Village.” In 1968 Old Town San Diego became a State Historic Park, and the process of rediscovering and preserving the his- toric town began. THE COURTYARD by Marriott sits on the historic site of the first Hotel in Old Town. The hotel's location stood on a lot near the residence of George Pendleton, offering a commanding view of the Bay and sur- rounding country."…a massive frame build- ing erected by Don Juan Bandini in 1850, in flush times. The prospect for customers soon vanished. It cost Bandini an inordi- nate amount of money to build – according to Judge Benjamin Hayes, $25,000. DERBY-PENDLETON HOUSE was shipped around the Horn as a prefab house to William Heath Davis’s New Town in 1850, and moved to Old Town around 1851, after the collapse of New Town. It was purchased by Don Juan Bandini for his daughter Dolores, wife of Captain Charles Johnson. It was acquired in 1855 by Captain George A. Pendleton, first county clerk and recorder, for his office. From 1853 to 1854 Lieutenant George H. Derby, one of Americas foremost humorists, board- ed here, writing many of the sketches appearing in the San Diego Herald. Historic Sites & Museums CASA DE PEDRORENA was the residence of Don Miguel de Pedrorena, who made his home in San Diego in the 1850’s. A member of an old Madrid family, he was educated both in that city and at Oxford. Allied in sympathy with the Americans during the Mexican War, he became captain in our Army. It was he who saved the famous old Spanish gun “El Jupiter” (now standing on Fort Stockton, Presidio Park) by burying it in the yard of his house. CASA DE MACHADO Was built by Corporal Jose Manuel Machado for his daughter, Maria Antonio Machado de Silvas. It was from this house in 1846 that Senora de Silvas ran to cut away the Mexican flag, and in it that she hid the banner. McCONAUGHY HOUSE is an Italianate house constructed in 1887, was origi- nally owned by John McConaughy, who founded the first scheduled passenger and freight service in San Diego County. His four-horse passenger stages and six-horse wagons operated between San Diego and Julian. LIVING HISTORY continued SAN DIEGO SHERIFF’S MUSEUM A project of the Honorary Deputy Sheriff’s Association, located 100 feet from where the first cobblestone jail stood.